Adapted from Reinventing Management, Copyright 1996 AXIS Performance Advisors, Inc.
Why Management Is ChangingIt helps to understand why these changes are taking place. Foremost on the list is global competition. It used to be that you could tell your customers,"Right, fast, or cheap: pick any two." Now customers are demanding and getting all of the above. Traditional management and its chain of command simply takes too long.
Work is also becoming more complex. With new regulations, laws, and technologies not to mention more diverse customers no one person can know enough to make informed decisions. Remember General Motors trying to sell their Nova in South America (where "no va" means "don't go")? Decisions require a team approach.
Knowledge work is replacing physical work as the primary competitive advantage. Physical work can be managed traditionally. You can observe my work and closely measure my output. But when the primary task is inside and between craniums, a traditional manager can't always tell if someone is working! You can't demand I have a good idea today. You have to engage my commitment. Typically traditional management only results in compliance.Organizations need the passion and energy of all their employees if they hope to compete in the 21st Century.
What's a Manager to Do?The only value-added you bring is to do what your employees cannot do.If you are performing a task or making a decision that someone of lesser salary could do competently, you are wasting your organization's money.Tough words, but true.
So begin by taking an inventory of what you are doing. Then ask yourself,which of these tasks could employees do if given a little coaching, training,or assistance. Don't underestimate your employees! Employees in some organizations set their own pay scale, make major capital purchase decisions, and help set organizational strategy. At home, your employees manage complex schedules,lead volunteer efforts, hire contractors, manage budgets, and secure mortgages.You should be taking advantage of their existing skills. Delegate most of your responsibilities to your employees over time.
Then ask yourself, "If I gave up all these tasks, what would I love to do that would add value to my organization?" Chances are, you'll come up with a long list of potential projects, problems you'd love to solve,new information/fields/technologies to explore. Then build a proposal around the ideas you like the most and propose the concept to your manager.
Ask your teams what they'd like to see you do more of and less of. I always found my employees were the best source of information about how to become a better manager. Ask them, "What could I do to help you be more productive?" Add their requests to your list of new responsibilities.
What's the pay-back for you? One of our clients put it this way. "It's great! People bring me solutions instead of problems." Then she sighed."I don't have to be God anymore." Being a traditional manager means being responsible for everything, being expected to be right all the time, being expected to know everything that's going on. That's a lot for any one person to carry. Most managers are relieved to share their load.
There is more than enough work in most organizations to keep managers employed. It's just different work. Learn to be a good team builder, coach,and technical expert, and you will have no problem remaining employed.
What Helps Managers ChangePractically everyone now agrees that the role of manager is changing dramatically. Managers used to be expected to lead, direct, staff and control or so said our management training. Now, however, managers must learn to coach,empower, and yes, still lead. As best-selling author Larry Miller puts it,"The successful manager of the future... will learn to derive pleasure not from the making of decisions but rather from ensuring the best possible decision is made."
This is a dramatically different role, and the transition is a tough one for many managers. Those who can't make the change soon find themselves sidelined, demoted, or even laid off. With the trend toward flatter organizations,only those who can make this transition will keep a management job in the future.
So how can we help managers make this difficult change? AXIS Performance Advisors conducted a research study to answer this question. We asked managers in organizations across the country to indicate the effectiveness of various development strategies (e.g., attending workshops, talking with other managers,etc.). We compared the frequency of use and the effectiveness of each strategy. Here is some of what we learned.
What most managers tried to improve their skillsInterestingly, we found that the strategies that were used most often were the least effective! The most popular strategies were drawn from the middle or bottom of the list in terms of effectiveness. Most managers preferred:
- Sharing ideas informally between managers
- Attending public seminars
- Participating in professional associations
- Reading books and articles
- Being involved in work redesign efforts
- Attending in-house workshops
- Participating in formal manager meetings where challenges were discussed
What did the best managers find effective?If you are serious about making a change, take note of what the most empowering managers did. ("Consultant" below refers to an internal or external advisor a coach for the coach.) These were the most effective strategies used by more empowering organizations (listed in order of effectiveness):
- Provide the manager access to a consultant on demand
- Conduct team assessments surveying the effectiveness of the work group
- Have a consultant talk with the manager's employees to monitor progress (and report back to the manager as appropriate)
- Have a consultant observe the manager and provide feedback
- Take managers on site visits to meet with peers in more advanced organizations
- Conduct climate surveys to assess employee satisfaction. Note how these strategies provide feedback. They have teeth.
- Is not afraid to tell you the truth
- Has good observation skills
- Has good communication skills will be tactful but direct
- Will maintain confidences
- You respect.
Interestingly, in-house workshops fell in the middle of the pack in effectiveness.Attending public seminars, reading books, listening to audio tapes, and going to conferences were rock bottom on the list. Remember that this does not mean you should not do these low-impact strategies. Just don't fool yourself into thinking they will provide the development you need.
Finding a Coach for the CoachAll the managers I know who made a dramatic change have said that getting a coach a trusted advisor who would confront them and challenge their thinking was absolutely critical to their development. So it's no accident that three out of the top six strategies listed above refer to the use of consultants.
Who can play this role? Often the best place to look is inside your own organization. If you can find someone who watches you interact with people every day and who is knowledgeable about the future role of manager, cultivate his or her trust and ask for feedback. In addition to these two characteristics, look for these qualities.